Fedora Hub

May 23, 2017

Fedora Magazine

Improved high DPI display support in the pipeline

Support for high DPI monitors has been included in Fedora Workstation for some time now. If you use a monitor with a high enough DPI, Fedora Workstation automatically scales all the elements of the Desktop to a 2:1 ratio, and everything would display crisply and not too small.  However, there are a couple of caveats with the current support. The scaling can currently only be either 1:1 or 2:1, there is no way to have fractional ratios. Additionally, the DPI scaling applies to all displays attached to your machine. So if you have a laptop with a high DPI and an external monitor with lower DPI, the scaling can get a little odd. Depending on your setup, one of the displays will render either super-small, or super-large.

A mockup of how running the same scaling ratio on a low DPI and high DPI monitor might look. The monitor on the right is a 24inch desktop monitor with over sized window decorations.

A mockup of how running the same scaling ratio on a low DPI and high DPI monitor might look. The monitor on the right is a 24inch desktop monitor with over sized window decorations.

Both of these limitations have technical reasons; such as how to deal with fractions of pixels when scaling by something other than 2. However, in a recent blogpost, developer Matthias Clasen talks about how the technical issues in the underlying system have been addressed. To introduce mixed-DPI settings, the upstream developers have per-monitor framebuffers, updated the monitor configuration API, and added support for mixed DPIs to the Display Panel. Work is also underway upstream to tackle the fractional scaling issue. For further techincal details, be sure to read the post by Matthias. All this awesome work by the upstream developers means that in a Fedora release in the not to distant future, high DPI support will be much much better.

by Ryan Lerch at May 23, 2017 05:27 AM

May 22, 2017

Fedora Magazine

How to make a Fedora USB stick

The Fedora Media Writer application is the quickest and easiest way to create a Fedora USB stick. If you want to install or try out Fedora Workstation, you can use Fedora Media Writer to copy the Live image onto a thumbdrive. Alternatively, Fedora Media Writer will also copy larger (non-“Live”) installation images onto a USB thumb drive. Fedora Media Writer is also able to download the images before writing them.

Install Fedora Media Writer

Fedora Media Writer is available for Linux, Mac OS, and Windows. To install it on Fedora, find it in the Software application.

Screenshot of Fedora Media Writer in GNOME Software

Alternatively, use the following command to install it from a terminal:

sudo dnf install mediawriter

Links to the installers for Mac OS and Windows versions of the Fedora Media Writer are available from the Downloads page on getfedora.org

Creating a Fedora USB

After launching Fedora Media Writer, you will be greeted with a list of the Fedora editions available to download and copy to your USB drive. The two main options here are Fedora Workstation and Fedora Server. Alternatively, you can click the icon at the bottom of the list to display all the additional Spins and Labs that the Fedora community provides. These include the KDE Spin, the Cinnamon Spin, the XFCE spin, the Security lab, and the Fedora Design Suite.

Screenshot of the Fedora Media Writer main screen, showing all the Fedora Editions, Labs and Spins

Click on the Fedora edition, Spin or Lab you want to download and copy to your new USB. A description of the software will be presented to you:

Screenshot of the Fedora Workstation details page in Fedora Media Writer

Click the Create Live USB button in the top right to start the download of your new Fedora image. While the image is downloading, insert your USB drive into your computer, and choose that drive in the dropdown. Note that if you have previously downloaded a Fedora image with the Media Writer, it will not download it again; it will simply use the version you have already downloaded.

Screenshot of a Fedora Workstation ISO downloading in Fedora Media Writer

After the download is complete, double check you are writing to the correct USB drive, and click the red Write to Disk button.

Screenshot of writing Fedora Workstation to a Fedora USB in Fedora Media Writer


Already have an ISO downloaded?

But what if you have previously an ISO through your web browser?. Media Writer also has an option to copy any ISO already on your filesystem to a USB. Simply choose the Custom Image option from the main screen of Fedora Media Writer, then pick the ISO from the file browser, and choose Write to Disk.

by Ryan Lerch at May 22, 2017 11:57 AM


May 19, 2017

Fedora Magazine

Sumantro Mukherjee: How Do You Fedora?

We recently interviewed Sumantro Mukherjee on how he uses Fedora. This is part of a series on the Fedora Magazine. The series profiles Fedora users and how they use Fedora to get things done. Contact us on the feedback form to express your interest in becoming a interviewee.

Who is Sumantro Mukherjee?

Sumantro Mukherjee started using Linux in his freshman year. His interest in web development exposed him to open standards which ignited a desire to use an open source operating system. He learned about Fedora from a post on ‘Digit’ about Fedora 13. He enjoys listening to music, traveling and collecting currencies of different countries. Mukherjee was involved with open source before using Linux. Sumantro contributed to Firefox OS, Mozilla and Wikipedia.

Biryani, a mixed rice dish, is Mukherjee’s favorite food. His favorite heroes are Captain America, Doctor Strange and, in real life, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose. Interstellar and Inception are Sumantro’s favorite movies. “My favorite parts of of the movie is the docking scene.” Sumantro continued, “space exploration and science fiction are some things which I love reading and watching about.” He enjoys movies that promote how humans can achieve what seems impossible with patience and effort. “Interstellar portrays how people humans can do anything which might seem impossible at first but with patience and effort , everything is possible!”

The Fedora Community

Sumantro found the Fedora community open and receptive to new contributors. “The very first impression was warm and welcoming. Adamw, Kamil, Petr Schindl and Sudhir helped me a lot in getting started.” Mukherjee would like to see improvement in the onboarding process for new contributors. “The Project invites users and contributors from designers to documentation and coders to testers.” Every Fedora user has something good to contribute to Fedora. Making it easier for potential contributors to find an area to contribute in important. On March 2016 Sumantro joined Red Hat as an intern for Fedora Quality Assurance. “Adam Williamson and I started running onboarding calls for Fedora QA which was another essential part to welcome the new contributors and help them understand the testing process.”

Getting started guides:

Mukherjee is passionate about getting new contributors invovled in the Fedora project. “There is no harm in breaking things while learning and know that the community will help you if you ask the right question and follow the open source etiquette.” His recommendation to new contributors is to “Be vocal , be bold and ask as many times as you want.”

What Hardware and Software?

Sumantro prefers Lenovo T460s and X220s. His T460 is a beast. It has 20GiB of ram, an Intel Skylake i7 and handles his virtual machines with ease. Despite having a laptop he prefers a big screen and uses a Dell monitor. Makherjee also loves to boot Fedora on ARM processors. “I currently use a Raspberry Pi 3 and a Samsung Artik to test Fedora ARM.”

Sumantro Applications

His desktop environment is Gnome with Wayland. Sumantro uses Sublime for web development, and Vim for shell scripts and Python. Mukeherjee’s terminal of choice is Terminator. For version control he uses Git, Github and Arcanist. “Arcanist is a wrapper script that sits on top of other tools (e.g., Differential, linters, unit test frameworks, Git, Mercurial, and SVN) and provides pretty good command-line access to manage code review and perform some related revision control operations.”

by Charles Profitt at May 19, 2017 09:30 AM


May 18, 2017


May 17, 2017

Fedora Magazine

NetworkManager changes and improvements

NetworkManager is the default service in Fedora for interfacing with the low level networking in the Kernel. It was created to provide a high-level interface for initializing and configuring networking on a system without shell scripts. Over the past few Fedora releases, the NetworkManager developers have put in a lot of effort to make it even better. This article covers some of the major improvements that have been implemented in NetworkManager over the past few Fedora releases.

A brief history

The past few Fedora releases have highlighted the incredible amount of effort there has been in developing NetworkManager. Unfortunately NetworkManager has the legacy of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 (NM 0.8.1) in the minds of many people. The version in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 was pretty much only capable of handling a WiFi network and in all other scenarios had to be disabled and/or removed (the latter often being preferable).

Similar to how services used to be started and stopped by a series of shell scripts, network configuration in Fedora also used to be handled via several different shell scripts. These still exist as the “legacy network service” but they are fragile and have no concept of state. Anyone who has carried out changes to bonding or bridging knows the pain of carefully manually unpicking the present configuration with ifenslave, brctl or more recently ip and then hoping all the ifcfg-* files are correct. Or just bite the bullet and carry out that reboot.

Just as initially upstart and later systemd marked the end of running a series of shell script to configure a service with no concept of state, so NetworkManager marks the end of running a similar series of shell scripts to configure the network.

The Red Hat Enterprise Linux releases don’t line up precisely but this should give an idea of the accelerated development over time, especially when compared to the NEWS file in the source repository.

Fedora Release RHEL Release NetworkManager Version
12 0.7.996
13 6.X 0.8.1
14 0.8.1
15 0.8.999
17 0.9.4
18 0.9.7
20 7.0
22 7.1 1.0.2
23 7.2 1.0.6
24 1.2.2
25 7.3 1.4.2
26 1.8.0

So what’s the major changes in the last few Fedora releases? Why should you now pay attention to NetworkManager and not remove it on your Server instances?

Keeping out of the way

There are situations where a running daemon or any risk of dynamic behaviour is not desired. Typically this has been where the legacy network service has been preferred because of the nature of one time fire and forget shell scripts. A few Fedora releases ago at NM 1.0 the ability to just act once and then hide was added.

cat > /etc/NetworkManager/conf.d/c-and-q.conf <<EOF

Documentation round-up

On IRC there’s often questioning about what is valid in the ifcfg-* files when using NetworkManager. There’s been a strong effort to improve this documentation locally on the system. The man pages of most interest are:

The overall NetworkManager settings names that are valid for all types of interfaces. These are used on DBus to change NM behaviour or with the nmcli CLI command to configure the interfaces.
The mapping of NM configuration options to how they are named in the ifcfg-* files. The terms used in the ifcfg-* files are not always the same as the property names on an interface so this is very useful to reference in a normal Red Hat environment of using those files.
A useful reference of many nmcli activities and this also includes the polkit policy information.
Configuration for the actual daemon itself and for lower level or default behaviours.

IPv6 is here! Pay attention to it!

As the doomsday clock for IPv4 continues to count down there are more and more networks enabling IPv6 connectivity. There’s been a lot of changes related to IPv6 in the last few releases. These are mostly bugfixes (for example an interface with only an automatic link-local fe80:: address is not considered connected) but the changes focusing on privacy are important to be aware of.

There’s been much concern about tracking of the MAC address of a system due to EUI64 encoding, which uses the MAC to automatically create an IPv6 address. There’s been two approaches to handle this from slightly different angles. First there was RFC4941 which involves automatically generating an address and using it for a period of time before generating a new address and so on. This can be configured in NM on a connection by the property ipv6.ip6-privacy but it’s better to handle it at the kernel level with net.ipv6.conf.default.use_tempaddr=2 to prefer using a temporary address, so that everything is aware of the configuration. NetworkManager will respect the sysctl setting by default. The sysctl property to set the lifetime this temporary address is valid for is net.ipv6.conf.default.temp_prefered_lft.

The downside of this is that anything which uses the IP to carry out session tracking (secure cookies could be an example here) risks losing the session with the change of IP.

The second approach to handle privacy (which can be used alongside the temporary addressing) is RFC7217 which allows for a random, but stable, IPv6 address on a connection. This works by creating a secret key for the system from /dev/urandom and then using the connection UUID with that to create the random address, but one which stays the same for the connection. This is now used instead of EUI64 by default, but the predictable address can be used instead in an environment that needs that predictability in SLAAC.

Privacy protection of the system MAC

Particularly with WiFi being a commonplace feature in our society it’s not just the IP layer that has privacy concerns but also the lowest level of the MAC address.

Just as recently as Fedora 24 (and EL7.3) NetworkManager began using a random MAC whilst scanning for access points to use. The default at present is to use whatever the MAC of the interface is (or preserve if it’s been set in advance with a tool like macchanger) however similar to the IP layer it’s now possible to set cloned-mac-address on a connection to RANDOM for a totally random MAC each time that connection is activated or STABLE to mimic the IPv6 behaviour of a randomly generated address that stays consistent with a connection.

Bridging, teams and bonding

Previously there were special virtual interface types of team-slave, bond-slave and bridge-slave that had to be declared when using a bridge, team or bond. Although the underlying framework supported stacking these together (along with vlan tagging as well) it wasn’t possible to directly create the “stack” via the nmcli utility, as each had an underlying assumption that they had to be on a physical interface (type ethernet).

Recently these special interface types were dropped with just a master connection property being used to arbitrarily stack this stuff together. This is particularly important on a server environment with a host that is used to house multiple guest virtual machines linked to different networks.

Prior to NM 1.2 this was the juggling of nmcli commands needed to bring three interfaces together, with vlans tagged and bridges defined on these for guests to connect to:

nmcli connection add type bond con-name bond0 mode active-backup
nmcli connection add type bond-slave ifname eth2 master mybond
nmcli connection add type bond-slave ifname ens9 master mybond
nmcli connection add type bond-slave ifname ens10 master mybond
nmcli connection add type bridge con-name bridge0 ifname bridge0 connection.autoconnect yes ipv4.method manual "" 
nmcli connection add type bridge con-name bridge60 ifname bridge60 connection.autoconnect yes ipv4.method manual "" 
nmcli connection add type bridge con-name bridge100 ifname bridge100 connection.autoconnect yes ipv4.method manual "" 
nmcli connection add type vlan con-name vlan-60 dev bond0 id 60
nmcli connection add type vlan con-name vlan-100 dev bond0 id 100
nmcli connection down bond0
nmcli connection down vlan-60
nmcli connection down vlan-100
nmcli connection modify bond0 connection.master bridge0 connection.slave-type bridge
nmcli connection modify vlan-60 connection.master bridge60 connection.slave-type bridge
nmcli connection modify vlan-100 connection.master bridge100 connection.slave-type bridge
nmcli connection up bond-slave-eth2
nmcli connection up bond-slave-ens9
nmcli connection up bond-slave-ens10
nmcli connection up bond0
nmcli connection up bridge0
nmcli connection up vlan-60
nmcli connection up bridge60
nmcli connection up vlan-100
nmcli connection up bridge100

With the change to allow arbitrary layering and the removal the the special *-slave type this has simply becomes:

nmcli c add type bridge ifname bridge0 con-name bridge0 connection.autoconnect yes ipv4.method manual ipv4.addr ""
nmcli c add type bridge ifname bridge60 con-name bridge60 connection.autoconnect yes ipv4.method manual ipv4.addr ""
nmcli c add type bridge ifname bridge100 con-name bridge100 connection.autoconnect yes ipv4.method manual ipv4.addr ""
nmcli c add type vlan con-name vlan-100 dev bond0 id 100 master bridge100 connection.autoconnect yes 
nmcli c add type vlan con-name vlan-60 dev bond0 id 60 master bridge60 connection.autoconnect yes 
nmcli c add type bond ifname bond0 con-name bond0 connection.autoconnect yes master bridge0 bond.options mode=active-backup 
nmcli c add type ethernet ifname eth1 con-name eth1 master bond0 connection.autoconnect yes
nmcli c add type ethernet ifname eth2 con-name eth2 master bond0 connection.autoconnect yes
nmcli c add type ethernet ifname eth3 con-name eth3 master bond0 connection.autoconnect yes

This release also brought the ability to manage many more types of devices such as macvlan, vxlan and tunnels.

So, what’s next?

Somewhat surprisingly the current Fedora release matches the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 version of NetworkManager for the moment, but Fedora 26 is right around the corner.

This will bring a jump all the way up to 1.8.0, which of course gets the 1.6.0 improvements in the process.

It’s worth checking out the developer blogs for 1.6.0 and 1.8.0 but some of the key things to look out for are MACsec support for networks that require Layer2 encryption, IPv6 connection sharing (which uses Prefix Delegation) and better handling of restarts of the NetworkManager service.

In researching this article there’s only a couple of areas left that I can see need the legacy network service.

  1. Use of openvswitch
  2. Openstack deployments

Outside of this there’s no reason to disable NetworkManager any longer.

As for the future? Well there’s always work to do!

by James Hogarth at May 17, 2017 09:27 AM


May 15, 2017

Fedora Magazine

How to install a kernel from koji

Kernel developers frequently request bug reporters test on a different kernel. Sometimes this is a full new version. Other times it’s a test build with a patch. This article shows you how to install a kernel someone has built elsewhere.

The kernel build process produces a long list of RPM packages. The most important ones are kernel, kernel-core, and kernel-modules:

  • The kernel package doesn’t contain any files; its only purpose is to bring in the other two packages.
  • kernel-core contains the files that end up in /boot and a set of kernel modules needed for core functionality.
  • kernel-modules contains the rest of the modules that are installed with the system. (There is a kernel-modules-extra package as well which contains drivers for rare hardware.)

A developer who requests testing — such as for a bugfix or other change — typically gives a link to a koji build. Koji is the build system Fedora developers use to build software for inclusion into Fedora.

A build only for testing is called a scratch build. These scratch builds are only retained for a short time. After that, the Koji system collects them as garbage and gets rid of them. A scratch build isn’t signed, so to install it you need to turn off secure boot if it’s turned on. A koji build produces binaries for multiple architectures, as seen below.

A screenshot of a build of the Kernel in Koji

A build of the Kernel in Koji

Get and install the kernel

Find the architecture you want to test (typically x86_64) and click the download link next to the kernel, kernel-core, and kernel-modules packages. Once the RPMs are downloaded, you can install them on the command line using dnf with sudo:

sudo dnf install ./path/to/kernel-4.10.8-100.fc24.x86_64.rpm ./path/to/kernel-core-4.10.8-100.fc24.x86_64.rpm ./path/to/kernel-modules-4.10.8-100.fc24.x86_64.rpm

You can then reboot into your new kernel. If you want to remove it after testing, make sure to remove all three packages kernel, kernel-core, and kernel-modules to fully remove the files.

by Laura Abbott at May 15, 2017 01:16 PM


May 14, 2017


May 12, 2017

Fedora Magazine

Track the night sky with Stellarium on Fedora

Ever looked up at the night sky and tried to identify specific celestial bodies out of the millions you can see? Stellarium is an awesome open source planetarium application available in Fedora to help you identify and track objects in the night sky. Basically, it simulates the night sky and provides labels and other tools to help you know what you are actually looking at.

Finding items in the night sky

Stellarium labels the objects in the night sky that are of interest, and provides directional labels as well to help identify the objects in the sky. There are also options to show labels for deep-sky objects and exoplanets.


 Identifying constellations

Stellarium also draws lines between and labels the multiple stars that make up the constellations, and also has a mode that overlays constellation artwork over the simulated sky.


View the night sky from anywhere

You can also set the location to anywhere on Earth (or Mars, or many other bodies) where you want to simulate the night sky



Stellarium can also do a lot more, like view how Supernovae looked from earth at previous points in history, show meteor showers, identify and track satellites around earth like the International Space Station, and also follow specific bodies through the sky. Also, if you have a compatible telescope, you can use stellarium to control the positioning of your telescope.

Stellarium is available in the Official Fedora Repositories, so you can install via the Software application on Fedora Workstation, or via the command line with the command:

sudo dnf install stellarium


by Ryan Lerch at May 12, 2017 08:00 AM


May 10, 2017


May 09, 2017

Fedora Magazine

Native color temperature tweaking with Night Light

RedShift is a utility that we have previously featured here at the Fedora Magazine. It is a small utility that automatically tweaks the color temperature towards the red end of the spectrum after dark. Blue light — which is typically emitted by a monitor — is shown to negatively impact sleep patterns if you are exposed to it after dark. Night Light is a new feature arriving in Fedora 26 Workstation — thanks to it being introduced in GNOME 3.24. Night Light provides the functionality of RedShift without having to install a separate utility or extension.


Enabling Night Light color temperature tweaking.

Currently, Night Light is only available if you are running a Fedora 26 pre-release. Enable Night Light in Fedora 26 with the new item in the Display Settings. The quickest way to access this page is to right-click on your background wallpaper, and pick Display Settings. Once Night Light is turned on, there will be a new icon in the status area (top right) of your Desktop to show you which mode it is in.

One thing that cannot be tweaked in the new Display Settings dialog for Night Light is the temperature value. If you are feeling adventerous, this can be tweaked in the dconf Editor. The default value of 4000 was a little too red for my eyes, so I tweaked it to 4500.

by Ryan Lerch at May 09, 2017 11:00 AM

May 08, 2017


May 05, 2017

Fedora Magazine

Full MP3 support coming soon to Fedora

Both MP3 encoding and decoding will soon be officially supported in Fedora. Last November the patents covering MP3 decoding expired and Fedora Workstation enabled MP3 decoding via the mpg123 library and GStreamer. This update allowed users with the gstreamer1-plugin-mpg123 package installed on their systems to listen to MP3 encoded music.

The MP3 codec and Open Source have had a troubled relationship over the past decade, especially within the United States. Historically, due to licensing issues Fedora has been unable to include MP3 decoding or encoding within the base distribution. However, many users utilized 3rd party repositories to enable MP3 support.

A couple of weeks ago IIS Fraunhofer and Technicolor terminated their licensing program and just a few days ago Red Hat Legal provided the permission to ship MP3 encoding in Fedora. There will be a bit of time whilst package reviews are carried out and tools that are safe to add are identified, as only MP3 is cleared and not other MPEG technologies. However, it will soon be possible to convert physical media or other formats to MP3 in Fedora without 3rd party repositories.

by James Hogarth at May 05, 2017 01:08 PM

GNU nano: a minimalist console editor

Text console editors are useful in many ways. For example, they’re indispensable for editing files while recovering from a failure. Fedora contains a wide selection of applications for editing text files, ranging from GUI editors like gedit and GNOME Builder to editors that run in the terminal like Vi and Emacs. A terminal based editor — developed under the auspices of the Free Software Foundation — is the GNU nano editor. Nano is a great little tool for getting started with editing files in the Terminal. It has a shallower learning curve than other terminal-based editors — such as Vi — as it displays shortcut for regularly used actions at the bottom of the screen.

GNU Nano

GNU nano was intended to be a replacement of Pico. Pico is a text editor for UNIX, and more specific for the Pine email suite. The original mission of nano: “emulate Pico as closely as possible and then include extra functionality,” although it’s short on extras.

Some of these features are:

  • Syntax highlighting
  • Mouse support
  • Move through pages
  • Copying and Pasting
  • Deleting Line
  • Multibuffer
  • Remote edition

Installing nano

GNU nano isn’t in the default installation of Fedora, but it’s in the official repositories. To install use the command:

sudo dnf install nano

Basic operations

The editor works with keyboard shortcuts you can identify at the bottom of the main screen:

Nano editor Main Screen

Nano editor main screen

To open a file, call it from the terminal with the nano command:

nano fileToOpen

If you don’t specify a file, nano opens an empty file.

In this article, the character ^ means the Ctrl key, and M- stands for Meta. For us in Linux, this usually means the Alt key. You can type normally to start a document, and use arrow keys to move around in it.

One of the most common tasks in an editor is copy and paste. To understand this task in the editor, you need to know that select is called mark, and the clipboard is called the buffer. Knowing this, the steps to copy and paste are:

  1. Move to the the place you are going to start the copy.
  2. Start marking the text with ^6
  3. When you reach the end of the text to copy, press M-6. This moves the marked text to the buffer.
  4. Move to the destination to paste the text and press ^U.

Cutting is the same process, but the combination after marking the text is ^K. Also notice that if you don’t mark the text, the whole line is sent to the buffer when you use M-6 (copy) or ^K (cut).

Other features

Another feature is the Multibuffer, which lets you open multiple files. Since this is a console utility, there are no tabs to check multiple files. To move between files, use the keyboard shortcuts: M-> or M-. for the next file and M-< or M-, for the previous file.

Moving through files in nano editor

Moving through files in nano editor

You can also search text with regular expressions. Use the combination ^W, type the text you’re searching and hit Enter. The cursor moves to the first character when the search pattern is found. To find the next instance, hit M-W.

To search and replace, the combination is ^. The editor prompts you to enter the word for search, and then the word that will replace the searched word. The editor asks you for each instance whether you want to replace:

Find and replace in nano editor

Find and replace in nano editor

To close the editor, use ^X at which point you’re asked to save the file. To save a file at any time, use the combination ^O.

There are many other shortcuts. For instance, check out this little list with some of those most used. Also, you can query the official documentation.

Final thought

GNU nano is a minimal editor intended for easy use. Although it may not be ideal for code, remember it was created as an email editor. It’s great for quick edits and to create documents, since it’s minimal and has no GUI — it does everything from your keyboard.

by Eduard Lucena at May 05, 2017 08:00 AM


May 03, 2017

Fedora Magazine

How to install more wallpaper packs on Fedora Workstation

Every release, the Fedora Design team creates a new default wallpaper for Fedora. In addition to the default wallpaper, the Fedora repositories also contain a set of extra Supplemental Wallpapers for each release. These older wallpapers are not installed by default, but are easily installed from the Fedora Repositories. If you have just set up a fresh install of Fedora, and want to expand your choices for your desktop wallpaper, the older Fedora wallpapers are a great choice.

This post lists out the older wallpapers available in the Fedora repositories, and how to install them on your current Fedora install. On Fedora Workstation, after you have installed your desired pack, they will show up in the Wallpapers tab in the Background chooser in the Settings.

Note: If you are using a desktop environment other than the default for Fedora Workstation (GNOME), there are also packages tailored to some of the more popular alternative desktops. In most of the examples below, simply change gnome in the dnf install line to kde or mate or xfce when installing the package.


Fedora 25 Wallpapers

Fedora 25 Default Wallpaper

To install the Fedora 25 default wallpaper, use the following command in the Terminal:

sudo dnf install f25-backgrounds-gnome

Fedora 25 Supplemental Wallpapers

To install the Fedora 25 supplementary wallpapers, use the following command in the Terminal:

sudo dnf install f25-backgrounds-extras-gnome

Fedora 24 Wallpapers

Fedora 24 Default Wallpaper

To install the Fedora 24 default wallpaper, use the following command in the Terminal:

sudo dnf install f24-backgrounds-gnome


Fedora 24 Supplemental Wallpapers

To install the Fedora 24 supplementary wallpapers, use the following command in the Terminal:

sudo dnf install f24-backgrounds-extras-gnome



Fedora 23 Wallpapers

Fedora 23 Default Wallpaper

To install the Fedora 23 default wallpaper, use the following command in the Terminal:

sudo dnf install f23-backgrounds-gnome

Fedora 23 Supplemental Wallpapers

To install the Fedora 23 supplementary wallpapers, use the following command in the Terminal:

sudo dnf install f23-backgrounds-extras-gnome

Fedora 22 Wallpapers

Fedora 22 Default Wallpaper

To install the Fedora 22 default wallpaper, use the following command in the Terminal:

sudo dnf install f22-backgrounds-gnome

Fedora 22 Supplemental Wallpapers

To install the Fedora 22 supplementary wallpapers, use the following command in the Terminal:

sudo dnf install f22-backgrounds-extras-gnome



Fedora 21 Wallpapers

Fedora 21 Default Wallpaper

To install the Fedora 21 default wallpaper, use the following command in the Terminal:

sudo dnf install f21-backgrounds-gnome

Fedora 21 Supplemental Wallpapers

To install the Fedora 21 supplementary wallpapers, use the following command in the Terminal:

sudo dnf install f21-backgrounds-extras-gnome



Fedora 20 Wallpapers

Fedora 20 Default Wallpaper

To install the Fedora 20 default wallpaper, use the following command in the Terminal:

sudo dnf install heisenbug-backgrounds-gnome

Fedora 20 Supplemental Wallpapers

To install the Fedora 20 supplementary wallpapers, use the following command in the Terminal:

sudo dnf install heisenbug-backgrounds-extras-gnome



Fedora 19 Wallpapers

Fedora 19 Default Wallpaper

To install the Fedora 19 default wallpaper, use the following command in the Terminal:

sudo dnf install schroedinger-cat-backgrounds-gnome

Fedora 19 Supplemental Wallpapers

To install the Fedora 19 supplementary wallpapers, use the following command in the Terminal:

sudo dnf install schroedinger-cat-backgrounds-extras-gnome



Fedora 18 Wallpapers

Fedora 18 Default Wallpaper

To install the Fedora 18 default wallpaper, use the following command in the Terminal:

sudo dnf install spherical-cow-backgrounds-gnome

Fedora 18 Supplemental Wallpapers

To install the Fedora 18 supplementary wallpapers, use the following command in the Terminal:

sudo dnf install spherical-cow-backgrounds-extras-gnome



Fedora 17 Default Wallpaper

To install the Fedora 17 default wallpaper, use the following command in the Terminal:

sudo dnf install beefy-miracle-backgrounds-gnome



Fedora 16 Wallpapers

Fedora 16 Default Wallpaper

To install the Fedora 16 default wallpaper, use the following command in the Terminal:

sudo dnf install verne-backgrounds-gnome

Fedora 16 Supplemental Wallpapers

To install the Fedora 16 supplementary wallpapers, use the following command in the Terminal:

sudo dnf install verne-backgrounds-extras-gnome



Fedora 15 Wallpapers

Fedora 15 Default Wallpaper

The default wallpaper for Fedora 15 was a remix of the default GNOME wallpaper at the time. To install the Fedora 15 default wallpaper, use the following command in the Terminal:

sudo dnf install lovelock-backgrounds-stripes-gnome

Fedora 15 Alternate Wallpaper

Fedora 15 also shipped with an alternate wallpaper, that was used by default on non-GNOME spins. To get this wallpaper, use the following command in the Terminal:

sudo dnf install lovelock-backgrounds-gnome



Fedora 14 Wallpapers

Fedora 14 Default Wallpaper

To install the Fedora 14 default wallpaper, use the following command in the Terminal:

sudo dnf install laughlin-backgrounds-gnome

Fedora 14 Supplemental Wallpapers

To install the Fedora 14 supplementary wallpapers, use the following command in the Terminal:

sudo dnf install laughlin-backgrounds-extras-gnome


Fedora 13 Default Wallpaper

To install the Fedora 13 default wallpaper, use the following command in the Terminal:

sudo dnf install goddard-backgrounds-gnome


Fedora 12 Default Wallpaper

To install the Fedora 12 default wallpaper, use the following command in the Terminal:

sudo dnf install constantine-backgrounds


Fedora 11 Default Wallpaper

To install the Fedora 11 default wallpaper, use the following command in the Terminal:

sudo dnf install leonidas-backgrounds-lion


Fedora 10 Default Wallpaper

To install the Fedora 10 default wallpaper, use the following command in the Terminal:

sudo dnf install solar-backgrounds


Fedora 9 Default Wallpaper

To install the Fedora 9 default wallpaper, use the following command in the Terminal:

sudo dnf install desktop-backgrounds-waves


Fedora 8 Default Wallpaper

To install the Fedora 8 default wallpaper, use the following command in the Terminal:

sudo dnf install fedorainfinity-backgrounds

by Ryan Lerch at May 03, 2017 09:10 AM


Fedora Magazine

Fedora at the Red Hat Summit 2017

This week is the huge, annual conference where Red Hat comes together with its customers, partners, and key communities. One of the main features of the Partner Pavilion here is the gigantic Community Central area. Anchoring that space are the Fedora and CentOS booths, back to back.

At the booth you’ll find intrepid Fedora Project Leader Matthew Miller. He’s handing out stickers and news about all the awesome things happening in Fedora.

FPL Matthew Miller at Summit booth

Are you into Fedora Badges? You’re in luck. You can pick up a special Summit 2017 badge at the booth as well.

You’ll also find long term Fedora superstar Tom “spot” Callaway. He’s showing off the latest in completely free and open source 3D printing technology:

If you’re in Boston this week and love open source, this is a fantastic event. We in the Fedora crew hope to see you there!

by Paul W. Frields at May 03, 2017 12:01 AM

May 01, 2017

Fedora Magazine

Share Fedora: Measuring Success

Last week the Fedora community was asked to share ideas about difficult conversations. Opensource.com collected many great responses. This week the blogging challenge continues with ideas on how to measure success.

Metrics are important to the Fedora Project.  You can see them as part of the Fedora Project Leader’s State of Fedora presentations.  You can also find them as a proposed Google Summer of Code project for Fedora.  Today, we can see statistics on topics such as the estimated usage of Fedora by version or the number of active contributors.  Are these the statistics we want? Do they help us guide the project? Share your thoughts and become part of the worldwide spread of open source and the ideas behind it.

What you can do

Write a blog post about this week’s theme and publish it. Please consider adding the link in the comments to this post. Tweet or use other social media to send your link to both opensource.com and us, by including the hashtags #osscommunities and #Fedora.

Opensource.com will publish a roundup of posts every Friday. Do you want to see your post included? Then let everyone know about it by Thursday.

This week’s theme is measuring success.

You’re free to write about anything related to the theme. Fedora and opensource.com offer the following suggested topics:

  • How does the Fedora Project use metrics in the areas where you contribute?
  • What metrics should the Fedora Project capture and why?
  • Are numbers important in measuring community success? Which numbers? How do you collect them?
  • What vanity metrics should you avoid?
  • What if your project doesn’t want more developers? How can an “open source” project close its door to new developers?
  • Do social media followers matter?
  • How do you count a contribution? Who qualifies as a “contributor”?
  • When is a contributor no longer a contributor?
  • How do you measure and report how well your community manager is doing?
  • X ways to know if your community is healthy and Y things to measure.

We look forward to seeing your posts!

by Brian (bex) Exelbierd at May 01, 2017 08:00 AM


April 29, 2017

Fedora Magazine

Fedora Atomic Host available in Digital Ocean

The latest release of Fedora Atomic Host was announced earlier this week, and for the first time is also available on Digital Ocean. The Project Atomic blog has more details, including how to set up a new instance via either the Digital Ocean web interface or the dotctl CLI.


by Ryan Lerch at April 29, 2017 06:07 AM

April 28, 2017

Fedora Magazine

Fedora 26 will look awesome with supplemental wallpapers

The Fedora Design team works with the community for each release, on a set of 16 additional wallpapers. Users can install and use these to supplement the standard wallpaper. The Fedora Design team encourages submissions from the whole community. Fedora contributors then use the Nuancier app to vote on the top 16 to include.

Voting has closed on the extra wallpapers for Fedora 26 and Fedora Contributors had 15 days time to choose from 92 submissions. A total of 257 Fedora contributors voted. The results page for the voting contains the breakdown of votes, as well as links to the full-size versions of the images.They chose the following 16 backgrounds to be included in Fedora 26.

Fedora 26 wallpaper - Bluebird Fedora 26 wallpaper - Bluerose Fedora 26 wallpaper - Alternative Blue

We congratulate all the winners, and we look forward to many high-quality submissions for Fedora 27

by Sirko Kemter at April 28, 2017 08:00 AM


April 27, 2017

Fedora Magazine

FCAIC in the House, part III

Hello, it’s me.

Ok, not that “Hello”. I’ve been writing quarterly updates on what I’m working on to help the Fedora Community. If you’re new to the party, welcome. I have the privilege of being the current Fedora Community Action and Impact Coordinator. I wrote last week on the Red Hat Community blog about what this role means and how it interacts with the world.

So, without further ado, let me update you on what I’ve been working on relative to my goals.

How’d I do?

I listed these goals in my last update:

  • Get to know the community
  • Budget.Next
  • FAmSCo and FOSCo
  • Fedora Docs Publishing
  • Events
  • Packaging

Get to know the community

As I keep saying, this is a never-ending goal. I keep meeting amazing, passionate, intelligent and helpful contributors to the Fedora Project.  As part of this goal I attended both DevConf.cz and FOSDEM. At DevConf.cz I got to focus on one area of the project by participating in the Diversity FADFOSDEM was its usual glory and I got to interact with the EMEA Ambassadors there.

I’ve started publishing my conference and travel schedule in my weekly Slice of Cake updates. If we’re going to be near each other, let me know so we can meet and say “hello.”

Speaking of my weekly updates, they are designed to be quick takes on the highlights of the actual things I did and not a high-level summary like this post.  Are these (or this post) useful to you?  Let me know in the comments, by email, on IRC, or via whatever other communication method you like.  Help me with your motivational comments and constructive feedback please!


As you know, Budget.Next is the project to change the way Fedora manages money.  A new fiscal year for Fedora began on March 1, 2017.  The budget has been updated by the council to get us through the end of Quarter 1.  There is a lot of conversation going on about the mission statement right now, so the council hasn’t fully allocated the budget for the year.

However, allocations are policy decisions.  The budget process is a mechanical one designed to keep our spending and income open and transparent.  To that end, the regional treasurers and credit card holders (Neville Cross (Yn1v), Mohd Izhar Firdaus Ismail (izhar), Abdel G. Martinez L. (potty), Zacharias Mitzelos (mitzie), Joerg Simon (jsimon), and Andrew Ward (award3535)) and I have been putting our transactions into a Pagure repository and now we have a website to view the results on.  The site is currently being manually built, but is usually current.  I haven’t published the Fedora Community Blog post announcing the site that I promised last time, yet.  I am sorry about that.  It is still a goal of mine to get it out soon.  The highlights are:

  1. Built a data storage system using ledger, a plain text accounting system that has been packaged in Fedora for a while.
  2. Began storing transaction data in a Pagure repository.
  3. Wrote some basic reports to show the overall data and position for our project and the regions.
  4. This quarter we began publishing the new budget website.

My work on updated reimbursement policies and proposals for more formalized methods of using sponsored travel are stalled right now as I have too much to do.  I hope that I can get to these in the upcoming quarter.

Interested in helping out? Feel free to contact me right now. On the technical side, I’d love some help from folks interested in Ruby, AsciiDoc, Jenkins, testing (CI – Continuous Integration) and automated deployments (CD – Continuous Deployment). On the policy and procedure side, let me know about ideas and help me draft a great way forward for us. This is a great project for new contributors and junior coders or system administrators.

FOSCo (and FAmSCo)

The Fedora Ambassador Steering Committee (FAmSCo) has been working well and I am seeing great stuff.  I am so happy to see this group of contributors tackling so many tough issues.  The ideas behind FOSCo have been shelved by the council and there is now a new Mindshare position.  I am looking forward to seeing where Robert Mayr takes it.  I hope you’ll join me in helping him succeed.

Fedora Docs publishing

Our documentation reboot work continues. The documentation team has decided to move to AsciiDoc and modular writing.  The process has been very slow and this is an area where new contributors are definitely welcome.

I’ve been working on my AsciiBinder based proposal for the new tooling using the Fedora Budget website as a proof of concept.  I’ll include more details when I write the formal site announcement.

Interested in helping out? Get involved with the Docs Project or feel free to contact me right now. On the technical side, I’d love some help from folks interested in format conversions (DocBook->AsciiDoc – think perl, python, bash, etc.), ruby, AsciiDoc, Jenkins, testing (CI – Continuous Integration) and automated deployments (CD – Continuous Deployment). We also need help on the writing side with modular writing and general updates.


Planning for Flock 2017 is in progress.  Flock will be held in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA from 28 August – 1 September. We are making some changes to the registration and CFP engine before we make the formal announcement.  If you haven’t already, join the flock-planning mailing list to stay informed and help out.


I successfully packaged DayJournal for Fedora.  It was a rewarding and educational experience to have gone through the packaging process.  Even if you don’t ultimately publish a package, you should try to package something to understand the process.

What’s next?

For the next few months, I’d like to focus on the following:

  • Get to know the community
  • Budget.Next
  • Fedora Docs Publishing
  • Events

I am continuing my work on four of my goals for the new quarter.  I’ve got a lot of conference related travel as well as some personal holidays coming up so I don’t know that I can take on much that is new.  These remain critical priorities for me, so this is where I want to invest my energy.

I’ve talked a lot about what I hope to accomplish in the future while describing my outcomes above.  Therefore, I will just list summary goal statements for the next quarter below:

  • Get to know the community: I want to meet you! Where are you? Who are you? Let’s meet!
  • Budget.Next: I’d like the website to auto-publish after commits to the repository.
  • Fedora Docs Publishing: I’d like the documentation team to have a full proof of concept to test of my proposed workflow.  Ideally, I’d like us to publish F26 this way.
  • Events: Flock will be ready to go.  I’ll successfully represent Fedora at the events I travel too.  Other events that want my help will have it.

Let me know if I’ve missed anything. Let me know if you have input into what I’m doing or want to help. And by all means let me know what we can work on together. I can’t do it all alone (and I don’t want too!) and I can’t even help with everything I want to, but I want to make sure my work is helping the community move forward.

by Brian (bex) Exelbierd at April 27, 2017 12:17 PM

April 26, 2017

Fedora Magazine

Keybase on Fedora: crypto for everyone

Keybase is a service that makes a security web of trust usable for everyone. It uses encryption to provide secure communications — including chat, file sharing, and publishing documents. But it extends encryption into a social context, like Github or Gitlab do for project and source code control. Like other acceptable secure systems, Keybase doesn’t rely on secret source code, and is based on free software.

Proving your identity

Most people use some form of social network today. Quite a few of these are already supported, including:

  • Twitter
  • Github
  • Reddit
  • Facebook
  • …and more

Proving the authenticity of a social account or site involves posting special coded information. These proofs show that an account or site truly belongs to you. Then other users can also verify your identity through these proofs. Arbitrary websites under your control are also supported.

The proofs are stored in a blockchain that ensures integrity and authenticity as you make changes.

Getting started with Keybase.io

To get started, download and install the package for your system. This example assumes you have an Intel 64-bit processor, like most computers today. If you have a very old 32-bit system, use i386 instead of amd64 below. The package takes some time to download, depending on your internet connection speed.

sudo dnf install https://prerelease.keybase.io/keybase_amd64.rpm

Now run the initial startup application:


The following screen appears, encouraging you to use encryption.

Keybase initial terminal run

The following window appears if you’re running a graphical desktop:

Keybase initial GUI window

If you have an account on Keybase.io, you can sign in using the app window that appears. You can also create a new account.

When you create a new account, you’re asked to name the computer from which you’re using the service. That way the service can alert you if there’s a login from a new device.

You’ll also receive a special proof that you should write down and store in a secure location. It will look similar to this:

Keybase default proof

This default proof is recorded like other devices or computers where you log in. It lets you access your Keybase account from another computer in case your known computers are lost, broken, or stolen. The long list of words makes the proof easy to type in, but very hard to guess.

To prove an additional service or site is authentically yours, select the Prove function and follow the instructions. The instructions will differ depending on the nature of the service or site. The more sites you prove, the better the level of authenticity you’re providing.

If you’re not running a graphical desktop, or prefer the terminal, type this to see a list of available commands:

keybase help

If you want to prove more services, for example, run the keybase prove command. For help with a specific command such as prove, type:

keybase help prove

Making crypto social

If you’re using Fedora Workstation, notice a Keybase icon appears in the extra status icon tray at the bottom left of your screen. Select it to bring up the main app window. From this window, you can carry out different secure tasks.

By default, the window shows your encrypted folders. These are stored on your system using a FUSE plugin, and you can access them through the /keybase path. You can use these folders just like any other folder on your system. When you store documents there, they are automatically encrypted. Items in the public folder are available for others on Keybase to see. The other users can be certain these documents are authentic, thanks to the way GPG encryption and signing work.

When you select the people icon, your profile window appears. From this window you can access your list of followers and those you’re following on Keybase. “Following” is the Keybase expression of verifying identity.

Using the Keybase main window, you can share files with other users either publicly or privately. Users signed into Keybase receive notifications when new files are shared to them or the contents of a shared folder change. You can also enjoy encrypted chat with other users with whom you’re connected.

Keybase main window

You’ll know when someone shares files or chats with you that they’re really who they claim to be. In part this is because they’ve verified their identity based on social accounts and properties. Because many other Keybase users recognize those accounts you can be more certain of their identity.

by Paul W. Frields at April 26, 2017 08:00 AM


April 24, 2017

Fedora Magazine

Share Fedora: Difficult Conversations

Last week the Fedora community was asked to share ideas for maintaining existing community. Opensource.com collected many great responses. This week the blogging challenge continues with ideas on how to have difficult conversations. These kinds of conversations happen in every community, including ours. Share your thoughts and become part of the worldwide spread of open source and the ideas behind it.

What you can do

Write a blog post about this week’s theme and publish it. Please consider adding the link in the comments to this post. Tweet or use other social media to send your link to both opensource.com and us, by including the hashtags #osscommunities and #Fedora.

Opensource.com will publish a roundup of posts every Friday. Do you want to see your post included? Then let everyone know about it by Thursday.

This week’s theme is difficult conversations.

You’re free to write about anything related to the theme. But opensource.com offers the following suggested topics:

  • What do you do to turn around difficult conversations and make them productive for the community and the project?
  • What’s the single best tip you learned for dealing with difficult conversations online and how did you learn it?
  • How do you convince your manager to let you contribute to open source?
  • How do you convince your company to contribute to an open source software project?
  • How do you tell a really eager contributor that what they want to do is not right for the project?
  • How do you tell a new contributor that their contribution isn’t good quality?

We look forward to seeing your posts!

by Brian (bex) Exelbierd at April 24, 2017 09:00 AM


April 21, 2017


April 19, 2017

Fedora Magazine

How to open a terminal from Nautilus

When using Files (aka Nautilus), have you ever wanted to quickly open a terminal to run a command at the current location? The gnome-terminal-nautilus add-on for Nautilus provides a right-click context menu item to quickly open a new gnome-terminal window in the current location.

gif of the nautilus terminal add-on in action

This little tweak to the nautilus interface is super handy for those times when you need to run a quick command over some files that you are looking at in the graphical file browser.

Installing gnome-terminal-nautilus

This add-on can be installed via the Software application in Fedora Workstation. Simply locate the Files (Nautilus) entry in Software, and scroll down to the Add-ons section. Click the checkbox next to Terminal Plugin for Files to install the add-on:

Alternatively, if you are more comfortable with the command-line, install the add-on with the following DNF command:

sudo dnf install gnome-terminal-nautilus

After installation, the Open in Terminal option should appear in the right click context menu in Files. If it does not appear after installation, force Nautilus to close by running nautilus -q in your terminal, then reopen Nautilus.

by Ryan Lerch at April 19, 2017 07:12 AM


April 17, 2017

Fedora Magazine

How to boot an earlier kernel on Fedora

Fedora regularly offers an updated stable kernel for its users. This is just one of many reasons Fedora is a way to get the newest technology now. On rare occasions, though, a new kernel can bring an issue with it. You might need to revert to an older one to keep things working until the bug is fixed. This article shows you how.

The GRUB menu

Your system has a boot loader called GRUB that manages the start of the boot process. Among other things, it points to the kernels available on your system. However, your configuration might not allow you to see it for long. Often computer manufacturers include their own boot screens during the BIOS (basic input/output system) load process. The GRUB screen is different. It appears after the BIOS has loaded and the computer is ready to start up an operating system.

To make sure you see the GRUB screen, hold down a key like Ctrl after your computer manufacturer screen loads. The GRUB screen appears and shows a menu that includes several kernels.

Typically the top entry is the latest kernel. You can tell by the higher version number displayed in the entry. To select a different entry, use your arrow keys to select the previous version. Then hit Enter to boot that version.

Locking the kernel version

Typically a Fedora system will keep up to three kernel versions installed on the system. When a newer kernel is updated, up to two previous versions are kept on the system. An older kernel beyond those two will be removed by default. That means the boot partition doesn’t fill up to the point it affects the system boot.

Perhaps you want to lock down a specific version and have it always available always. In that case, you can use the versionlock plugin for DNF to keep it installed on the system regardless of updates.

To get the plugin, install the plugin package using sudo:

sudo dnf install python3-dnf-plugins-extras-versionlock

Then add a version lock for the version desired. For example:

sudo dnf versionlock add kernel-4.9.13-200.fc25

If you want to remove the locked version, use the delete option:

sudo dnf versionlock delete kernel-4.9.13-200.fc25

Keep in mind that versionlock works for packages of all kinds.

by Paul W. Frields at April 17, 2017 08:00 AM


April 16, 2017

Fedora Magazine

Share Fedora: Maintaining Existing Community

Last week the Fedora community was asked to share ideas for encouraging new contributors. Opensource.com collected many great responses. This week the blogging challenge continues with ideas on how to maintain existing community.  his is another critical issue for Fedora on a regular basis. Share your thoughts and become part of the worldwide spread of open source and the ideas behind it.

What you can do

Write a blog post about this week’s theme and publish it. Please consider adding the link in the comments to this post. Tweet or use other social media to send your link to both opensource.com and us, by including the hashtags #osscommunities and #Fedora.

Opensource.com will publish a roundup of posts every Friday. Do you want to see your post included? Then let everyone know about it by Thursday.

This week’s theme is maintaining existing community.

You’re free to write about anything related to the theme. But opensource.com offers the following suggested topics:

  • Who was the first community manager you ever met? (Give them a heads up before you write about them, if you can!)
  • Should community managers sit in marketing or engineering?
  • Tell us about a long-term working relationship you’ve had with a community online, whom you haven’t met in person.
  • How does meeting people IRL (in real life) help or improve working relationships?
  • Can you have too big a community? If so, what’s “too big”, and what problems does it cause?
  • How do you encourage and retain non-code contributors?
  • What does a community manager do?

We look forward to seeing your stories!

by Brian (bex) Exelbierd at April 16, 2017 08:32 PM

April 15, 2017

Fedora Magazine

Fedora Workstation: Get the features you want now

Christian Schaller is a long time free software contributor and advocate. He’s also a manager of emerging platform development at Red Hat. The groups in this area include desktop engineering, where developers work on many GNOME features seen in Fedora. Recently Christian posted on his blog about desktop features and improvements users want. He also discussed how Fedora delivers them.

Many such comments came in a recent Hacker News thread concerning Ubuntu. But listening to users doesn’t stop with just Linux users. Christian writes, “I often read such articles and threads about non-Linux systems too, to help understand what people are looking for and thus enable us to prioritize what we do with Fedora Workstation even better.”

Christian goes on to describe several of the most frequent requests. He also describes how Fedora is just offering well integrated technology in these areas to address user needs. More importantly, he discusses how Red Hat invests in these technologies upstream. This helps Fedora deliver a better integrated Workstation, but also brings benefits throughout the Linux community.

He says about leading edge technical features, “by using Fedora you are not only getting access to them first . . . but you are also supporting the effort of moving these technologies forward.”  Furthermore, he says, you’re “also putting yourself in a position to more directly interact with the engineers that work on [these features].”

You can read more on Christian’s blog here.

by Paul W. Frields at April 15, 2017 08:00 AM

April 14, 2017


April 12, 2017

Fedora Magazine

Share Fedora: Encouraging new contributors

The Fedora community is much more than just a distribution of Linux. We are a vibrant large community encompassing many different viewpoints, goals, and ideas.

Opensource.com is running a blogging challenge to collect information about how communities function and grow. These conversations are very important to Fedora on a regular basis. By participating, you become part of the worldwide spread of open source and the ideas behind it.

What you can do

Write a blog post about this week’s theme and publish it. Please consider adding the link in the comments to this post. Tweet or use other social media to send your link to both opensource.com and us, by including the hashtags #osscommunities and #Fedora.

Opensource.com will publish a roundup of posts every Friday. Do you want to see your post included? Then let us know about it by Thursday.

This week’s theme is encouraging new contributors.

You’re free to write about anything related to the theme. But opensource.com offers the following suggested topics:

  • 10 steps to keeping new contributors once you have their attention
  • 7 steps for onboarding new community members
  • 3 best places for finding new users
  • How did you get started in your first project?
  • 3 best tips you’ve received for attracting new contributors
  • 3 ways to find the right type of contributor and where to find them
  • The 3 most important things to do with a new project that most people miss and 3 projects that got it right

We look forward to seeing your stories!

by Brian (bex) Exelbierd at April 12, 2017 08:00 AM


April 10, 2017

Fedora Magazine

Try Tilix — a new terminal emulator in Fedora

Fedora users are spoilt for choice when it comes to terminal emulators. From the default gnome-terminal, to xterm, konsole, terminator, or tilda, there is certain to be a terminal emulator that suits your workflow. However, in Fedora 26, there is a new choice available to Fedora users: Tilix (previously named Terminix).

Tilix is a tiling terminal emulator that closely adheres to the GNOME Human Interface Guidelines (HIG). This new terminal on the block feels and behaves very much like the majority of the new GNOME applications available — think GNOME Builder, but dedicated just to your terminal. It also features a great range of features, including tile-able panes, the ability to set different profiles for each pane, and the ability to save the tabbed layouts. Check out the Features Page on the Tilix website for more info on all the features of this terminal emulator.

Installing Tilix

Tilix is already included in the default repositories for the forthcoming Fedora 26 release. If you have taken the plunge and are running the Fedora 26 Alpha, you can get Tilix with the command:

sudo dnf install tilix

However, if you are on Fedora 24 or Fedora 25, you can install Terminix from this handy COPR repo. Note that these versions that run on Fedora 24 and Fedora 25 are older versions of this software, running on the versions of GTK that ship in Fedora 24 & 25. This is why these packages are using Tilix’s older name of Terminix. To install from this COPR repo, first enable it:

 dnf copr enable heikoada/terminix

then install terminix

sudo dnf install terminix

Note: COPR repositories are not supported by the Fedora infrastructure team. Use them at your own risk.

by Ryan Lerch at April 10, 2017 07:00 AM


April 07, 2017

Fedora Magazine

Radka Janek: How do you Fedora?

We recently interviewed Radka Janek on how she uses Fedora. This is part of a series on the Fedora Magazine. The series profiles Fedora users and how they use Fedora to get things done. Contact us on the feedback form to express your interest in becoming a interviewee.

Who is Radka Janek?

Radka Janek is a former game programmer and community manager. She actively contributes to gaming and open source communities. Radka describes herself as: “Currently wearing her Red Hat, inspiring the desolate whitespace of Linux world with the delicate C# letters of simplified artificial intelligence. Trails of her C#, C++ and Python keystrokes can be found in the World of Tanks and several of the Angry Birds games. Her Fedora feels the delicate .NET presence as well.”

Radka wanted to be an astronaut and a princess, or an astronaut princess. She was inspired by a Slovak astronaut named Ivan Bella. Bella went to the Russian Mir station when Janek was nine years old. This fascination with space continues with Janek’s favorite movies, Stargate and Star Trek.

Her Favorite Food? Cookies!

Her favorite food? Cookies!

Janek works a lot. She keeps busy working for Red Hat on the .NET team and contributing to Fedora and personal projects. Her free time is now dedicated to going out with friends and colleagues. “I really like tea, we often go to tearooms.” Radka used to practice Iaido. Iaido is a Japanese martial art that emphasizes being aware and capable of quickly drawing the sword and responding to a sudden attack.

Fedora community

Janek’s involvement with the Fedora community started when she got an offer from Red Hat to work on .NET enablement. After learning more about the Fedora community, Radka started the .NET SIG. She hopes to make Fedora, and Linux in general, C# friendly. “It is not all closed Microsoft anymore, it’s time to realize that!” Janek is also a member of the CommOps and Diversity teams.

Radka is truly impressed with how inclusive and encouraging the Fedora Project is. She credits Justin W. Flory with influencing her decision to created the .Net SIG. “Justin W. Flory helped me when I first joined CommOps and encouraged me to start the whole .NET thing.”

Janek considers herself a bit of a revolutionary. As a Red Hatter she is enabling .NET in Linux despite the historical association with closed source software and Microsoft. “It is a new open source project, it is not the old .NET Framework, and people should realize that.” She is hopeful that the world of open source software can grow based on attracting .NET developers from the Microsoft world. “I would like to believe that Fedora has the potential of becoming welcoming for the .NET developers.” Radka’s concern about unresolved conflicts between contributors could be a stumbling block for such efforts which is why she joined the Diversity team.

What hardware?

Radka makes use of a Red Hat-issued Lenovo T460p with Fedora 25. She also has a Windows machine at home. “I do have one Windows machine (rather powerful), overclocked and watercooled which is a historic piece reminding me of my past life of a game developer (and player). I no longer use it much, not more than once a month.” Janek also has a Core i7 water cooled server used for network storage. The home computer list is completed with a Raspberry Pi 3 which was used to run a bot that has been moved to a VPS. She makes use of a Logitech MX Anywhere mouse, K810 keyboard, Sennheiser microphone and Creative Soundblaster soundcard.

What software?

She usually upgrades her OS about a month or two after release. Her network storage server is running unRAID Linux with SSD Cache. Radka considers herself a fairly standard user when it comes to work software. “As far as my Fedora (notebook) goes, I’m not using anything special for my work. Browser, git, weechat… the usual suspects.” When it comes to C# she makes use of JetBrains Rider for an IDE. “I really can’t stand Visual Studio or VS Code.” Once JetBrains is released she hopes to never again have to use Visual Studio.

by Charles Profitt at April 07, 2017 04:00 PM



April 05, 2017

Fedora Magazine

Read your MRI using aeskulap in Fedora

Open source probably isn’t the first thing that comes to mind when you think about medicine. But with standards for exchanging digital data comes a foot in the door for open source. By implementing these standards, open source gives patients access to their medical data. An example is MRI image data.

MRI and its imaging data

Doctors commonly use MRIs to diagnose physiological problems. The MRI gives them a high resolution, three dimensional view inside the patient’s body. They use the imaging data to determine signs of disease or injury, and more accurately treat the patient.

The image data from the MRI can be stored in various ways. Most vendors now support the DICOM standard for storing and transmitting medical imaging data. Imaging facilities often will provide data directly to the patient either by default or on request on a CD-R.

Fortunately, Fedora provides a reader for DICOM data in its standard repository. Now you can look at your own imaging if you like!

Enter aeskulap

The package for reading DICOM data is called aeskulap. To install it, launch the Software app in Fedora Workstation, search for aeskulap or DICOM, then select and install the package. Alternately, run this command in a terminal using sudo:

sudo dnf -y install aeskulap

Once installed, launch the application, or type aeskulap at the command line prompt.

The aeskulap application doesn’t just work with CDs. It can also use imaging servers that provide DICOM data over a network. This article deals with the simple case of data on a CD.

Reading your MRI data

Insert the CD from your doctor’s office into your system. From the File menu, choose DicomDir. Then in the file selector, choose the DICOMDIR file on your CD.

(If your CD doesn’t have this file, or a folder called DICOM, check with your doctor to ensure their equipment uses this standard.)

Selecting DICOMDIR in aeskulap

Once you open this file, your MRI data is loaded in the study manager window. You can select the dropdown triangle to see the different data series from your MRI.

MRI data in aeskulap study manager

To view the imaging data, select the patient name, not the individual series. Then wait while the data is loaded.

Once all the series load, you can select any series to view. Use the wheel on your mouse, or the window’s scrollbar, to move quickly across the scan layers. Think of these layers as slices of your anatomy. Doctors use their expertise to “see” these layers in three dimensions to diagnose your issue.

Viewing your own internal body structures can be an amazing experience. Thanks to modern technology and open standards, you can witness your own anatomical details using free software provided in Fedora.

by Paul W. Frields at April 05, 2017 08:00 AM


April 04, 2017

Fedora Magazine

Fedora 26 Alpha available now

The Fedora Project is pleased to announce the immediate availability of Fedora 26 Alpha. The Alpha release is an important milestone towards the Fedora 26 release later this year.

You can download the Alpha versions of Fedora 26 Workstation and Fedora 26 Server from the pre-release pages of the Get Fedora website. Pre-release versions of the Fedora Spins, Fedora Labs, and Fedora for ARM are also available.

Fedora 26 Alpha Workstation

Fedora 26 Alpha Workstation

Fedora Alpha releases are provided for Fedora users to try out the upcoming release. More importantly, Fedora engineers want you to file bugs against the upcoming release. The Fedora 26 Changeset page on the Fedora wiki provides a list of new features provided in Fedora 26.




by Ryan Lerch at April 04, 2017 02:26 PM

April 03, 2017


Fedora Magazine

Students meet Fedora at Linux Weekend 2017

Open source projects are built online and a lot of their community members are placed all over the world. Even though projects have people from around the world, this doesn’t stop ambitious community members to organize open source conferences or events in their own cities. Whether they’re focused generally to open source or for a specific project, you can find a variety of conferences, hackathons, workshops, or meet-ups all over the world. Fedora benefits from having Ambassadors to attend these events to introduce Fedora and spread the word about the community. It’s not uncommon to see Fedora participating in these events, and Linux Weekend 2017 in Tirana, Albania was not an exception.

Jona Azizaj, Fedora Ambassador and Open Labs board member, kicks off Linux Weekend 2017

Jona Azizaj, Fedora Ambassador and Open Labs board member, kicks off Linux Weekend 2017

From March 25-26, 2017 in Tirana, Albania, nearly 130 people attended the first-ever Linux Weekend 2017. Linux Weekend was organized by Open Labs Hackerspace at the Universiteti Politeknik i Tiranës as an introduction to Linux for beginners. Throughout Tirana, universities have a strong focus on Windows or macOS operating systems and little focus is given to Linux. Open Labs community members wanted to organize an event that would promote Linux as an open source alternative and demonstrate some of its benefits over proprietary environments. The event collected representatives from various communities, including Fedora, Ubuntu, OpenSUSE, NextCloud, MusicBrainz, and more.

Organizing Linux Weekend

The Open Labs community is not unfamiliar to organizing open source events in Tirana. Their portfolio includes Fedora release parties, OpenStreetMap map-a-thons, Wikipedia edit-a-thons, and Fedora community meet-ups. However, these events have been targeted towards people who already had prior interest or knowledge about open source communities. The organization and planning for Linux Weekend began in the middle of January as an idea to introduce Linux to complete beginners.

The Fedora community table at Linux Weekend 2017 in Tirana, Albania had no shortage of swag, stickers, and more to share with attendees

The Fedora community table had no shortage of swag, stickers, and more to share with attendees

Planning and organizing Linux Weekend was a community effort. Jona Azizaj is a board member of Open Labs and a Fedora contributor, and was involved as an organizer for the event. “This was the first edition of Linux Weekend, so the main focus is to raise awareness about Linux and open source. We wanted to educate beginners and spread the word about the choices that are available,” Azizaj explained. The two tracks for the event were full of talks and workshops to introduce attendees not only to Linux, but also various software and applications of what someone can do with Linux.

Many of the attendees were students who had either heard of Linux in their classes or from their peers. Other attendees included industry professionals or other open source community members. Several representatives of Fedora from different parts of the community were in attendance as well. Ambassadors, designers, and translators were available to answer questions and teach newcomers about Fedora.

Albanian students learn Linux

Since the focus of the event was to teach newcomers about Linux and how it can be used, Linux Weekend was organized to be an introduction to various parts of the Linux ecosystem. Representatives from Fedora, Ubuntu, Arch Linux, OpenSUSE, Linux Mint, and elementaryOS gave introductions to the operating systems and their communities. In addition to distributions, there were also sessions on open source licenses, NextCloud, text editors, MusicBrainz, and more. The benefit of these sessions were demonstrating the different ways Linux can be used to accomplish various tasks.

Sidorela Uku introduces different editors and tools in her talk at Linux Weekend 2017 in Tirana, Albania

Sidorela Uku introduces different editors and tools in her talk

In addition to the various sessions during the weekend, there were three community booths for Fedora, OpenSUSE, and Mozilla. Attendees had a chance to get swag from each project and also talk with representatives about their own experiences or how to get started using their project.

Sidorela Uku was both an attendee and a speaker at Linux Weekend. Her talk, “Programming in Linux, editors, and tools”, introduced various text editors and other tools to help customize any Linux distribution to someone’s needs or personal preferences. In addition to sharing her own knowledge, she was also excited to discover new things. “I wanted to attend the talks and workshops to learn as much as possible. I also wanted to figure out the next steps to find a project and get involved as a contributor,” Uku explained. “I also wanted to share the things I know with others to help them get started with Linux.” This was Uku’s first time speaking at an event and she looks forward to more open source events in Tirana in the future.

Fedora contributors introduce community

Various members of the Fedora community were also in attendance. Some of the Fedora presentations over the weekend introduced the project to newcomers, detailed the translation efforts to bring Fedora to Albanian, and also guided attendees on how to make their first steps as contributors. The Fedora presence aimed to help give newcomers a taste of the operating system but also to show the impact someone can have if they decide to contribute.

Mariana Balla, a Fedora contributor, introduces the Fedora Project to Linux Weekend 2017 attendees in Tirana, Albania

Mariana Balla, a Fedora contributor, introduces the Fedora Project to attendees

Mariana Balla was one of the first speakers on Saturday morning with her talk titled, “Introduction to Fedora Project and how to be a part of the community”. She started with localizing Fedora into Albanian in early 2016 and more recently started to become an advocate as well. “Fedora is one of the most used distributions, and it was great to have Fedora here to spread the word and show what our community is all about,” Balla said. “One thing I hoped to show in my talk was that technical skills aren’t required to contribute to Fedora. There’s so many things that aren’t code that people can help with!” One of the highlights of Balla’s presentation was breaking down the different sub-projects in the community and how they contribute to making Fedora what it is. One site that was mentioned was whatcanidoforfedora.org, a site anyone can click their way through to find an area that interests them.

One key contribution area that was important for the local community was localization. Many attendees and speakers alike thought it was important to have software translated into their native language. Anxhela Hyseni is a Fedora Ambassador and led the workshop on “Translation of Fedora”. “It’s important for Albanians to have software in Albanian because we are Albanians!” Hyseni laughs. “People are better able to understand Fedora and it makes it more accessible for us to have it in our local language.” She hopes that attendees left Linux Weekend with plenty of new contacts in the open source community and a better idea of what Linux is all about. She and others also helped Linux newcomers install Fedora 25 as a dual-boot or for virtual machines in the installfest on Saturday morning.

Fedora Ambassador Anxhela Hyseni at the Fedora community table at Linux Weekend 2017 in Tirana, Albania

Fedora Ambassador Anxhela Hyseni at the Fedora community table

Wrapping up

After two days of talks, workshops, and hallway discussions, the final talk finished around 4:00pm on Sunday. Azizaj closed out with some final words of encouragement and thanks for attendee participation.

Angelo Lushka, a Fedora translator and user, introduces the different Fedora spins at the installfest for Linux Weekend 2017 in Tirana, Albania

Angelo Lushka, a Fedora translator and user, introduces the different Fedora spins at the installfest

The presence of Fedora, open source software, and its philosophy was present during the entire weekend. Between stickers, install media, and brochures from community tables and the various presentations during the weekend, participants and organizers felt the event was worthwhile. “We had limited time to plan, but it was important to bring Linux to people to introduce the philosophy, show them how to use it, and also how they can give back,” Anxhelo Lushka, an event organizer and Fedora contributor, explained. “We hope attendees had new experiences and learned something new and useful for the real world, for jobs or studying. We also hope we convinced them to contribute and give back, even if in a small way.”

Now that Linux Weekend 2017 is finished, the organizing team is switching their focus to Open Source Conference Albania (OSCAL), the largest open source conference in the region.

Find Fedora near you

Open source events are happening all around the world, and Fedora might be closer to you than you think! Check for local user or meet-up groups near you to get involved in some of these events. Meetup.com is a great way to find local events happening in your community. You can also keep an eye on what Fedora is up to by following us on Facebook, Twitter, Google+, or Instagram.

We hope to see you at an event in the coming future!

by Justin W. Flory at April 03, 2017 12:00 PM


April 01, 2017


March 31, 2017

Fedora Magazine

Creating and using Nautilus templates

Have you ever noticed that by default there’s a Templates folder in your home directory? In some file managers, there’s an item in the right-click menu to “Create empty file” or “Create new file”.  However, Files (also known as Nautilus) lets you create not only simple empty files, but, as the folder name suggests, templates of many kinds of files.

How to create an empty file template

To create a simple empty file template, make an empty file in the Templates folder (~/Templates). Create the empty file with your favourite text editor, or use this command:

touch ~/Templates/EmptyFile

Now, right click in a blank part of the window. The new item New Document is now visible, with your EmptyFile template ready to use.

LibreOffice templates

You can also use a LibreOffice app — such as Writer — to make a template. Create an invoice, or a letter template, with your heading, name, address, and other content always present in your invoices or letters. Save it in the Templates folder with a name like BlankInvoice.odt. Once saved in the Templates folder, you can use the template from the context menu.

Other template ideas

You’ll find a collection of templates here on gnome-look.org, which you can use as a starting point or source of inspiration. Some other template ideas are:

  • Create a script template, with the shebang (#!) in the first line, and a header with license, author and so on.
  • Perhaps you like static web sites, and don’t want to use static site generators like Jekyll. Instead, create HTML templates for your web pages, pre-filled with headers and other tags.

Organizing templates

You can also organize your templates in subfolders. To do this, create subdirectories in the Template folder. This way you can have your templates split up by topic or usage.


If you use a language other than English, the Templates folder name is localized. However, if you have deleted it, or can’t locate it, use the following command to get the location of the template folder:

xdg-user-dir TEMPLATES







by Alessio Ciregia at March 31, 2017 08:00 AM


March 29, 2017

Fedora Magazine

Tether a digital camera using Entangle

Ever wanted to be able to control your digital camera or DSLR from Fedora? Entangle — an application to tether digital cameras — allows you to take a shot, tweak settings, and view the shot all from the comfort of your desktop. Simply connect your camera up via USB, launch Entangle, and start taking photos.

The Entangle user interface allows you to tweak the settings of the shot — for example aperture, shutter speed, and ISO settings — right from your desktop, without having to play with these settings on the camera itself. Entangle also makes it easy to view statistics and details about the shots you have taken, without having to view them on the small screen of your camera.

Screenshot of entangle on Fedora

Entangle uses the Picture Transfer Protocol (PTP) to control digital cameras and DSLRs from within Fedora. Specifically, Entangle uses the remote capture functionality implemented in libgphoto2. Entangle upstream states in the FAQ, that the best supported cameras are Nikon or Canon DSLRs — they have the widest range of functions, and are tested extensively on libgphoto2.

Installing Entangle

To Install Entangle, search for it in the Software application:

Entangle in the Software app

Alternatively, install using dnf on the commandline, using the command:

sudo dnf install entangle













by Ryan Lerch at March 29, 2017 05:00 AM


March 27, 2017

Fedora Magazine

Using cloud-init to initialize Fedora Cloud VMs on oVirt

This article shows how to use cloud-init on the oVirt management platform. With cloud-init, you can start up a Fedora Cloud Base Image template, configured for network and logins, without logging into the virtual machine.

What is oVirt?

oVirt is a free, open-source virtualization management platform with an easy web interface.

What is cloud-init?

The cloud-init tool provides early initialization and setup of a virtual machine (VM). This usually happens during the startup of the guest operating system on the VM.

What can I do with cloud-init in oVirt?

oVirt allows you to configure:

  • an initial user account including password and your SSH key
  • a hostname
  • the timezone of the VM
  • DNS settings and networks on the VM

Additionally, it allows you to pass a custom cloud-init script. That script gives you even more control over the VM.

Virtual machine requirements

To use cloud-init with a virtual machine, the cloud-init package must be installed on the VM in question. Packages for cloud-init are available in most distributions’ package repositories, including Fedora.

The VM you’re booting should have the cloud-init package preinstalled and configured to start automatically on boot.

cloud-init configuration within oVirt

There are two ways to configure the cloud-init parameters:

  • Permanent: Saves a configuration, which is useful for stateless VMs that discard all changes after shutdown.
  • Temporary: Passes configuration via the run once dialog used only for the current run of the VM.

How to permanently setup cloud-init parameters for a VM in oVirt

  1. Log in to the user portal or the administration portal of your oVirt instance.
  2. In case of the user portal, select the Extended link in the upper left corner to get the list of your VMs. (This step is not required for the Administration portal.)
  3. Select the VM in the list you want to configure.
  4. Select the Edit link which is now active in the list header.
  5. The Edit Virtual Machine dialog then opens. Now choose the Initial Run section on the left hand side of the dialog. This is usually the third entry from the top. (Note: If the Initial Run section is not present, select the Show Advanced Options in the bottom left area of the dialog to reveal hidden options.) Mark the check box Use Cloud-Init/Sysprep. This will reveal the available options.

Now configure the options as desired and select OK. oVirt applies the configuration to the VM the next time it’s started.

How to temporarily setup cloud-init parameters for a VM in oVirt via Run-Once

  1. Log in to the user or administration portal of your oVirt instance.
  2. If using the user portal, select the Extended link in the upper left corner to get the list of your VMs. (This step is not required for the administration portal.)
  3. Select the VM you’d like to configure in the list.
  4. Select the Run-Once link in the list header. The Run Virtual Machine(s) dialog appears.
  5. Now choose the Initial Run section.
  6. Mark the check box Use Cloud-Init. This will reveal the available options.

Now configure the options as desired and select OK. The VM starts with these options configured and applied. The information entered is not persistent. It’s discarded on shutdown of the VM. However, changes you apply inside the VM persist, as long as the VM isn’t stateless.

Hands on with the Fedora Cloud Base Image

From the oVirt administration portal, one imports a virtual machine disks from an predefined image. oVirt comes with a glance repository with many Linux distribution images. Several versions of CentOS 7, Ubuntu, and Fedora are included.

Importing the image

This example uses the Fedora 25 Cloud Base Image. Within the Storage section of the administration portal, select the ovirt-image-repository entry in the table. A list of available images to import appears in the lower pane.

Image selection in the oVirt Administration Portal

Image selection in the oVirt Administration Portal

Right click on the entry to setup the import. You can import to the datacenter and storage domain of choice as a new disk or template. This example imports as a disk.

The Import Image Dialog in oVirt

Import Image Dialog in oVirt

Setting up the virtual machine

After the disk image has been imported, switch to the Virtual Machines section and create a New VM. In the dialog choose Linux as the operating system. Configure it to be optimized for Server usage. Next, set a name for the virtual machine. The name of virtual machines in oVirt may not contain spaces.

Next attach the disk image to the virtual machine in the Instance Images section. The imported disk image should be called GlanceDisk followed by a dash and some numbers and letters. However, if you opted to rename it in the import dialog, look for the name you assigned there.

New Virtual Machine Dialog in oVirt

New Virtual Machine Dialog in oVirt

Now, configure the network interfaces. For this scenario add two adapters and set them to the appropriate network. The correct network depends on your configuration. By default the network is called ovirtmgmt/ovirtmgmt. In your environment, or in more complex scenarios, this might be different.

Change the amount of memory and number of CPUs in the System section of the dialog as needed.

Getting started with cloud-init

Now you can configure the virtual machine details from the Initial Run section of the dialog. Check the Cloud-Init/Sysprep checkbox to make the options visible.

Setting up cloud-init in the oVirt 'New Virtual Machine' dialog

Setting up cloud-init in the oVirt ‘New Virtual Machine’ dialog

Set a hostname as desired. This example uses f25.magazine.example.com. Next, set up a time zone by checking the Configure Time Zone checkbox and choosing the appropriate time zone.

Setting up authentication

The oVirt Cloud-Init configuration dialog lets users create new users and set their password. Additionally it lets you supply a SSH key for the root user. This key is added to the authorized-keys so you can establish a password-less SSH connection to the VM.

VM edit dialog - Cloud Init options - Adding authentication options

VM edit dialog – Cloud Init options – Adding authentication options

Networking options

oVirt offers a straightforward way to configure networks via cloud-init. To use the functionality, check the Network checkbox. Here you can set up DNS servers, DNS search domains, and network interface configurations.

To add an interface configuration, click the Add new button. Give the network a name, which may not contain spaces or special characters.

You may choose a dynamic network configuration, which is usually the default. It’s a good idea to check the Start on Boot checkbox, so the network configuration will be processed when the VM boots.

If you have no DHCP available, or if you prefer a fixed IP, choose the Static option from the Boot Protocol drop down. Then edit the IP address, Netmask and Gateway for your interface.

VM dialog - Cloud Init options - Network configuration

VM dialog – Cloud Init options – Network configuration

Finishing up

Once all information is configured, select OK and start the VM. If the VM is configured correctly and the cloud-init package is enabled to start on boot, it will find the configuration and apply all the settings.

In case of persistent information, oVirt marks a VM as initialized after the VM’s first runM. Once it is marked as initialized, the cloud-init information is no longer passed to the VM. This is not the case if the VM is stateless. A stateless VM discards all changes applied after the run, and therefore the VM won’t be marked as initialized.




by Vinzenz 'evilissimo' Feenstra at March 27, 2017 08:19 AM